# Operator precedence

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Operator precedence determines the way in which operators are parsed with respect to each other. Operators with higher precedence become the operands of operators with lower precedence.

## Associativity

Associativity determines the way in which operators of the same precedence are parsed. For example, consider an expression:

```a OP b OP c
```

Left-associativity (left-to-right) means that it is processed as `(a OP b) OP c`, while right-associativity (right-to-left) means it is interpreted as `a OP (b OP c)`. Assignment operators are right-associative, so you can write:

```a = b = 5;
```

with the expected result that `a` and `b` get the value 5. This is because the assignment operator returns the value that is assigned. First, `b` is set to 5. Then the `a` is also set to 5, the return value of `b = 5`, aka right operand of the assignment.

## Examples

```3 > 2 && 2 > 1
// returns true

3 > 2 > 1
// returns false because 3 > 2 is true, and true > 1 is false
// Adding parentheses makes things clear: (3 > 2) > 1```

## Table

The following table is ordered from highest (20) to lowest (1) precedence.

Precedence Operator type Associativity Individual operators
20 Grouping n/a `( … )`
19 Member Access left-to-right `… . …`
Computed Member Access left-to-right `… [ … ]`
`new` (with argument list) n/a `new … ( … )`
Function Call left-to-right `… ( … )`
18 `new` (without argument list) right-to-left `new …`
17 Postfix Increment n/a `… ++`
Postfix Decrement `… --`
16 Logical NOT right-to-left `! …`
Bitwise NOT `~ …`
Unary Plus `+ …`
Unary Negation `- …`
Prefix Increment `++ …`
Prefix Decrement `-- …`
`typeof` `typeof …`
`void` `void …`
`delete` `delete …`
`await` `await …`
15 Exponentiation right-to-left `… ** …`
14 Multiplication left-to-right `… * …`
Division `… / …`
Remainder `… % …`
13 Addition left-to-right `… + …`
Subtraction `… - …`
12 Bitwise Left Shift left-to-right `… << …`
Bitwise Right Shift `… >> …`
Bitwise Unsigned Right Shift `… >>> …`
11 Less Than left-to-right `… < …`
Less Than Or Equal `… <= …`
Greater Than `… > …`
Greater Than Or Equal `… >= …`
`in` `… in …`
`instanceof` `… instanceof …`
10 Equality left-to-right `… == …`
Inequality `… != …`
Strict Equality `… === …`
Strict Inequality `… !== …`
9 Bitwise AND left-to-right `… & …`
8 Bitwise XOR left-to-right `… ^ …`
7 Bitwise OR left-to-right `… | …`
6 Logical AND left-to-right `… && …`
5 Logical OR left-to-right `… || …`
4 Conditional right-to-left `… ? … : …`
3 Assignment right-to-left `… = …`
`… += …`
`… -= …`
`… **= …`
`… *= …`
`… /= …`
`… %= …`
`… <<= …`
`… >>= …`
`… >>>= …`
`… &= …`
`… ^= …`
`… |= …`
2 `yield` right-to-left `yield …`
`yield*` `yield* …`
1 Comma / Sequence left-to-right `… , …`

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